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This best-selling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language.

An Introduction to Language, Seventh Edition. Aug 18 0 By LANGUAGESCHOOL

To understand our humanity, one must understand the nature of language that makes us human.


Written by a team based at one of the world’s leading centres for linguistic teaching and research, the second edition of this highly successful textbook offers a unified...


The language and language family headings in this book are in alphabetical order from Abkhaz to Zulu. Cross-references are given in SMALL CAPITALS.


The need for a proper linguistics dictionary is thus as urgent now as it ever was; but to be fulfilled it requires a combination of academic expertise...

The Routledge Linguistics Encyclopedia Aug 18 0 By LANGUAGESCHOOL

The Routledge Linguistics Encyclopedia is a single-volume encyclopedia covering all major and subsidiary areas of linguistics and applied linguistics.


My purpose in writing this book is to celebrate the existence of human language, and to provide a tribute to those who engage in its study.


The new edition of this highly successful A–Z guide explores the main concepts and terms used in the study of language and linguistics.


The Encyclopedia of the World’s Endangered Languages will be a necessary addition to all academic linguistic collections and will be a useful resource for a range of...


In this volume, the world’s leading experts describe the world’s major languages.


EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION: In the study of language the late 1980s may be seen in retrospect as an era of consolidation.

Would you like to learn a new language ? Here are the free language learning packs!

Africa is a continent with a very high linguistic diversity, there are an estimated 1500-2000 African languages. giving approximately 140 major languages with some eleven millions speakers scattered in Central and Eastern Africa. Here you find some language books for learning Ethiopic, Somali, Yoruba, Oromo, Xhosa and Shona. And we also have one book about Egyptian hieroglyphs here. Afroasiatic languages have over 495 million speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family.

With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. The language has an extra 13.3 million L2 speakers. Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

5.4 million speakers in Balcan. Albanian is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and a co-official language in North Macedonia,.It is also the home language of some minorities living in Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.
The language is spoken by approximately 7 million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, Greece, Italy, North Macedonia and Montenegro. However, due to the large Albanian diaspora, the worldwide total of speakers is much higher than in Southern Europe.

Number of speakers. About 1.4 million people speak Amdo Tibetan and most of these people do not speak or understand other dialects. Tibetan is officially divided into three dialects, corresponding to the three geographic and cultural areas of Tibet: Utsang (or Central), Khams and Amdo. The region of U and Tsang roughly matches the border of the Tibetan Autonomous Region, while Khams is split between parts of Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu and Chamdo in the TAR.

The official language of Greece is Greek, and it's spoken by 99% of the population. The language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania and Turkey. In addition, a number of non-official, minority languages and some Greek dialects are spoken as well. The most common foreign languages learned by the Greeks are English, German, French and Italian.

Almost 262 million people use it as their first language. Many more people can also understand it, but not as a first language. It is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is written from right to left, like Hebrew. Since it is so widely spoken throughout the world, it is one of the six official languages of the UN, alongside English, Spanish, French, Russian, and Chinese.

Native speakers: 750,000 and about 1,185,500 passive speakers. A language spoken in the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and is a language isolate to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% (751,500) of Basques in all territories.

With approximately 228 million native speakers and another 37 million as second language speakers, Bengali is the seventh most spoken language by total number of speakers in the world. Bengali,also known by its endonym Bangla. It is the official and most widely spoken language of Bangladesh and second most widely spoken of the 22 languages of India, right behind Hindi.

We hope we have added an important tool in the continuing search for a way to make man better understood by his fellow men and to promote understanding among all men (and women of course). The process of the overall communication will be enhanced by the understanding and analysis of the gestures that we make. This is a fine library of body language books. Please look at it.

Brazilian Portuguese is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil. It is spoken by virtually all of the 205 million inhabitants of Brazil. Brazilian linguists estimate that around 1,200 Brazilian native languages have disappeared since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500.

Native speakers: 33 million. Second language: 10 million. The British separated Burma Province from British India in 1937. They also granted the colony a new constitution calling for a fully elected assembly, with many powers given to the Burmese, but this proved to be a divisive issue as some Burmese felt that this was a ploy to exclude them from any further Indian reforms.The ruling military junta changed its name from Burma to Myanmar in 1989, a year after thousands were killed in the suppression of a popular uprising.

Native speakers: 4.1 million; Total number of speakers: More than 10 million. Catalan is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia.

Chinese native speakers are over 1.2 billion! Mandarin is the official language of China. (It’s also referred to as Standard Chinese or Putonghua.) But that doesn’t mean Mandarin is the only language in China. Far from it! While the many varieties of spoken Chinese are often called “dialects,” many of them are different enough to be languages in their own right.

Croatian is a South Slavic language spoken by about 5.5 million people, mainly in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and the neighbouring countries. The Croatian Latin alphabet was mostly designed in 1835 by Ljudevit Gaj, a Croatian linguist, based on the Czech and Polish alphabets. Today his alphabet (see above pic) is used in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia, and variations of his alphabet are used for Slovene and Macedonian.

Native speakers 10.7 million. On the January 1st, 1993, the peaceful separation from the country Czechoslovakia into the Czech and Slovak Republics took place. Before the split, all news was broadcasted in both Czech and Slovak, all films and movies were screened in both languages, and several generations of Czechs and Slovaks grew up with a second language. Spoken by over 10 million people, Czech today serves as the official language of the Czech Republic.

Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status. Also, minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Sweden, Spain, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina.
Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their first language.

Native speakers: 23 million; Total speakers: 28 million (2018). It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German. Dutch is a West Germanic language. It's spoken by the majority of people in the Netherlands, where it is the sole official language and it's also spoken in Belgium, where it is one of three official national languages.

1.8 billion people knows much or a little English. English was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. The land is named after the Angles since the area later took their country name, England (Angland).

There are 40 million European Portuguese speakers. Portugal's wealthiest colony, Brazil, got it's independence in 1822. A 1910 revolution in Portugal said bye-bye to the monarchy, and for the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. Until 1974, when a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms, and the following year, 1975, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies.

Finnish is spoken by about five million people, most of whom reside in Finland. There are also notable Finnish-speaking minorities in Sweden, Norway, Russia, Estonia, Brazil, Canada, and the United States. The majority of the population of Finland, 90.37% as of 2010, speak Finnish as their first language. The remainder speak Swedish (5.42%), Sami (Northern, Inari, Skolt) and other languages. It is spoken as a second language in Estonia by about 167,000 people.

There are an estimated 274 million French speakers around the world. French is an official language in 29 countries across multiple different continents. Native speakers= 76.8 million. French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul.

Speakers: 95 million. German (or Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland.

Today Hebrew is spoken by some 5 million people mainly in Israel, where it is an official language along with Arabic. and a further 2 million people speak the language in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Panama, the UK and USA. Modern Hebrew became an official language in British-ruled Palestine in 1921 (along with English and Arabic), and then in 1948 became an official language of the newly declared State of Israel.

Hindi native speakers: 425 million. Urdu native speakers: 70 million. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and uses more Sanskrit words, and Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian words. Hindi is the most commonly used official language in India. Urdu —or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan.

Speakers: 13 million. Hungary became a Christian kingdom in 1000 AD. The country fell under foreign communist rule during the Second World War. In 1956, Hungary initiated an uprising and announced a withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. Moscow responded with military force. Hungary held its first free political election in 1990 and also initiated a new market economy. They joined NATO in 1999 and joined the EU in 2004.

Native speakers 360,000. Icelandic is the main language in Iceland. It is the official language and almost everything in Iceland takes place in Icelandic. Icelandic is taught in school, the news is told in Icelandic, newspapers are in Icelandic and the Senate takes place in Icelandic. Icelandic is the most similar language to the old Norse-language as it has been the least influenced by neighboring countries and visitors. At least until now.

Italians speak Italian. Approximately 63 million people in the world speak Italian as their mother language or first langauge. An additional 3 million people speak Italian as a secondary language. Various statistical resources differs slightly between them, but, Italian are around the 20 most-spoken languages in the world, at place number 20.

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

The official languages of Kazakhstan are Kazakh with 11.7 million speakers around the country and Russian which is spoken by 6,230,000 people. Both Kazakh and Russian are used on equal grounds. In 1997 Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev moved the capital from Almaty in the southeast of the country to the newly-named Astana (previously it was called Akmola), which was then an empty patch of land by the Ishim River best known as a former gulag prison camp for the wives of Soviet traitors.

Klingon is a constructed language meant for a television series called Star Trek. And if you have seen the tv series it could be fun to learn it. Only two dozen people on Earth speak it fluently, and there are 3000 thousand words. So this language did not developed naturally. Only a few people can speak the Klingon language well enough to talk in it or to terrify someone by using it with a perfect vocabulary. It's powerful, if you speak it!

Korean, known in the language itself as Kugo, is the language of the Korean Peninsula in northeast Asia. In the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, or North Korea) there are 20 million speakers and in the Republic of Korea (ROK, or South Korea) there are 42 million speakers. Korean is also spoken by almost 2 million people in China, mainly in provinces bordering North Korea.

The three Kurdish languages are Kurmanji, Sorani, and Southern Kurdish. Native speakers: 30 million. Before August 2002, the Turkish government placed severe restrictions on the use of Kurdish, prohibiting the language in education and broadcast media.

Catholic priest Father Foster estimates the number of fluent Latin speakers to no more than 100. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin has contributed many words to the English language.

Lithuanian is a language spoken by about 4 million people and is not included on the list of the 100 most spoken languages in the world. Lithuania is a country and the southernmost of Europe’s Baltic states, a former Soviet bloc nation bordering Poland, Latvia and Belarus. Its capital, Vilnius, near Belarus' border, is known for its medieval Old Town. It also has Gothic, Renaissance and baroque architecture, and 18th-century cathedral built on a pagan temple site.

390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - a small country landlocked by Belgium, France and Germany - is a prominent financial center. With roots stretching back to the 10th century, Luxembourg's history is closely intertwined with that of its more powerful neighbors, especially Germany. The city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, where a settlement developed.

Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world with 43 million native speakers and 156 million L2 speakers. Malay is spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, East Timor, Singapore, parts of Thailand and southern Philippines. Indonesia regulates its own normative variety of Malay, while Malaysia and Singapore use the same standard.

Native speakers: 520,000. Malta has two official languages: Maltese and English, but Maltese is the national language. Until 1934, Italian was also official language in Malta. The country have been governed by so many different countries in the past, the Maltese population is often generally very good to converse in languages which are not native to their islands, mostly English and Italian. The Maltese language is written with a modified Latin Alphabet which includes the graphemes ż, ċ, ġ, ħ, and għ.

Native speakers 16 million 9 million L2 speakers. Background: In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996.

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties; some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages.

There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, including Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, Caucasian Tats and Aimaqs. The term Persophone might also be used to refer to a speaker of Persian.

Polish is a West Slavic language spoken in Poland. With 55 million speakers, it is the second largest Slavic language. In addition to Poland, where it is an official language, Polish is also spoken by significant minorities in Belarus, Lithuania, Ukraine, Germany and the United States. It is written with the Polish alphabet. Polish is considered to be one of the most difficult and hardest languages to learn. Some believe IT IS the hardest language to learn on Earth.

Romanian is an Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It is an official and national language of each of Romania and Moldova. In addition, it is also one of the official languages of the European Union.

With 155 million native speakers throughout central and Eastern Europe and in Russia, it's the eighth most common language in the world and the second most used in website content, after English. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991.

Sanskrit (English: /ˈsænskrɪt/; Sanskrit: संस्कृतम्, romanized: saṃskṛtam, IPA: [ˈsɐ̃skr̩tɐm] is a language of ancient India with a 3,500-year history. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India.

Estimates show that about 1% of the total population is born Deaf and another %-factor will become Deaf later in life. Those who are born Deaf, are the most likely to learn and speak a qualified Signed language. Learning to sign is easier than ever, thanks to the internet. The visual language, designed to aid the deaf or those that have hard to hear, is a set of gesticulations and hand movements that correspond to the spoken word. There are numerous ways to learn American Sign Language (ASL) outside the old classroom method.

Slovak is a Western Slavonic language spoken by about 5.6 million people in Slovakia and also in Canada, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and the USA. Czechoslovakia became a democratic country 1993, but split up into two independent countries (Slovakia and Czech Republic). The Slovak and Czech languages have started to drift away from each other, though they are still very alike.

Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is a South Slavic language spoken by the Slovenes. It is spoken by about 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia, where it is the sole official language. As Slovenia is part of the European Union, Slovene is also one of its 24 official and working languages.

Spanish or Castilian as it is also called, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today gets spoken by more than 437 million people in the Americas and Spain. It qualifies as second on the list of biggest languages by number of native speakers after Mandarin Chinese. Nowadays five languages are spoken in Spain: Galician- Portuguese, Spanish (Castilian), Basque, Catalan and Occitan (aranès). Spanish (Castilian): It is the official language in all over the country.

Around 5 million people speak Swahili as a native language, and a further 135 million speak is as a second language. The language dates from the contacts of Arabian traders with the inhabitants of the east coast of Africa over many centuries. Under Arab influence, Swahili originated as a lingua franca used by several closely related Bantu-speaking tribal groups.Swahili is a Bantu language spoken in Tanzania, Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa) Kenya, Mayotte, Mozambique, Oman, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Uganda, UAE and the USA....

Swedish speakers: 10 million. Sweden is a Scandinavian nation with thousands of coastal islands and inland lakes, along with vast big forests and glaciated mountains. The capital of Sweden, Stockholm, is built on 14 islands and has more than 50 bridges. Sweden offers everything from deep-blue archipelagos and Northern Lights, to killer fashion. Its principal cities, eastern capital Stockholm and southwestern Gothenburg and Malmö, are all coastal towns.

23.8 million L1 total speakers and 45 million L2 speakers. The Philippines is a multilingual state with at least 175 living languages originating and spoken by various ethno-linguistic groups. There was no one single common language across every cultural group in the Philippine archipelago when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. The four major trade languages were Visayan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, and Ilocano.

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Approximately 50 million people speak Thai worldwide. It is used by about 85% of the population in Thailand, as well as by small groups of people in the United States, the United Arab Emirates, and Singapore. Thai stipulates different ways to address people to show varying degrees of respect or to acknowledge a person’s social rank.

Turkish speakers: 88 million (L1+L2). Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, they have undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy. And they began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.

Total speakers: around 40 million (estimated). Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script.

Vietnamese is among the 20 most spoken languages in the world, talked by around 80 million people. Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is the only official language in Vietnam. It is the first or second language of many ethnic minorities in Vietnam, but some mountain tribes continue to speak a language of their own. Foreigners should learn Vietnamese, if they live or work in Vietnam. It will help them communicate and to understand the Vietnamese people's mind's and culture. It certainly makes a good relationship.

Yiddish is spoken by 1.5 million people. Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. And Yiddish is also the primary language in some Haredi Ashkenazi communities in Israel. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages.

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"As it turns out, there is no language-learning gene, but there are tools and tricks for faster learning...
As a “polyglot”—someone who speaks multiple languages—my world has opened up. I have gained access to people and places that I never otherwise could have reached. I’ve made friends on a train in China through Mandarin, discussed politics with a desert dweller in Egyptian Arabic, discovered the wonders of deaf culture through American Sign Language, invited the (female) president of Ireland to dance in Irish (Gaeilge) and talked about it on live Irish radio, interviewed Peruvian fabric makers about how they work in Quechua, interpreted between Hungarian and Portuguese at a social event... and well, had an extremely interesting decade traveling the world. Such wonderful experiences are well within the reach of many of you!
I can now speak more than a dozen languages to varying degrees between conversational and mastery."
Author: Benny Lewis.

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What means the word 'Linguistics'? Linguistics is the scientific study of a language. The definition of the word 'Linguistics' is - the study of human speech including the units, nature, structure, and modification of the specific language.
(Phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics).
Language is, after all, the medium of human interaction.
That is what this website is about.
And it's built for academics and students.